In any case it is very difficult to assign all known languages to one or other of these groups, the more so as they are not mutually exclusive. Note that this "classifier" is not an actual classifier i. This in turn explained why many polysynthetic languages seem to be non-configurationali.
In Lahu a Tibeto-Burman languagethe definite phrase "I drink Baker 1996 polysynthesis parameter liquor" becomes Baker 1996 polysynthesis parameter more general "I drink liquor" when "liquor" is incorporated. In other languages this change does not take place, or at least it is not shown by explicit morphology.
In a synthetic language Latin, Arabic, Finnish the concepts cluster more thickly, the words are more richly chambered, but there is a tendency, on the whole, to keep the range of concrete significance in the single word down to a moderate compass.
The first and simplest type, known as lexical compounding, involves a verb incorporating a nominal argument. This latter peculiarity marks it off altogether from the processes of agglutination and collocation. She calls the two types for affixal and compositional polysynthesis respectively.
In a rough translation, one would say for example "I animal-bought this pig", where "animal" is the generic incorporated noun. The polysynthesis parameter states that all phrasal heads must be marked with either agreement morphemes of their direct argument or else incorporate these arguments in that head.
Another proposed origin is the denominal derivation of a nominal compound containing a noun root and a verb root Jacques This seems to imply a pattern of progression, as Mithun describes in her paper on the evolution of noun incorporation. Semantics of noun incorporation[ edit ] In many cases, a phrase with an incorporated noun carries a different meaning with respect to the equivalent phrase where the noun is not incorporated into the verb.
Brinton[ edit ] The ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brintonthe first professor of anthropology in the US, followed Duponceau, Gallatin and Humboldt in seeing polysynthesis, which he distinguished from incorporation, as a defining feature of all the languages of the Americas.
That the American languages in general are rich in grammatical forms, and that in their complicated construction, the greatest order, method and regularity prevail That these complicated forms, which I call polysynthesis, appear to exist in all those languages, from Greenland to Cape Horn.
The elaboration of the word is extreme.
By a mode of compounding locutions which is not confined to joining two words together, as in the Greek, or varying the inflection or termination of a radical word as in the most European languages, but by interweaving together the most significant sounds or syllables of each simple word, so as to form a compound that will awaken in the mind at once all the ideas singly expressed by the words from which they are taken.
It is related to them very much as a synthetic language is related to our own analytic English. If the hypothesis were correct, it would mean that free standing nouns in such languages did not constitute syntactical arguments, but simply adjoined specifiers or adjuncts.
It is often illuminating to point out that a language has been becoming more and more analytic in the course of its history or that it shows signs of having crystallized from a simple analytic base into a highly synthetic form.
Type III uses noun incorporation to background old or established information. In Yucatec Mayafor example, the phrase "I chopped a tree", when the word for "tree" is incorporated, changes its meaning to "I chopped wood".
The second type uses the same process to manipulate case roles, incorporating the argument into the verb to allow for a new argument to take its place. According to Mithun, languages exhibiting any of these types always display all of the lower types as well.
That is, if the verb is transitive, the verb word with an incorporated direct object becomes formally intransitive and marked as such. Their most remarkable external appearance is that of long polysyllabic words, which being compounded in the manner I have stated, express much at once. A polysynthetic language, as its name implies, is more than ordinarily synthetic.
Many make a weak distinction between nouns and verbs, which allows using affixes to translate these parts of speech. There are languages where noun incorporation does not produce a meaning change though it may cause a change in syntax — as explained below.
There is justification for the use of all of these terms, though not perhaps in quite the spirit in which they are commonly employed.
Non-configurationality and the pronominal argument hypothesis[ edit ] Eloise Jelinekhaving worked with Salishan and Athabascan languagesproposed an analysis of polysynthetic languages in which the morphemes that agree with the arguments of the verb are not just considered indexes of the arguments, but in fact constitute the primary expression of the arguments within the sentence.
Chukchi[ edit ] Chukchia Paleosiberian language spoken in North Eastern Siberia, provides a wealth of examples of noun incorporation. In an analytic language the sentence is always of prime importance, the word is of minor interest.
I believe the terms are more useful in defining certain drifts than as absolute counters. The incorporated phrase is usually generic and indefinite, while the non-incorporated one is more specific. It is believed that all affixally polysynthetic languages evolved from compositionally polysynthetic ones via the conversion of morphemes that could stand on their own into affixes.The Polysynthesis Parameter (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 1st Edition.
Baker argues that polysynthesis is more than an accidental collection of morphological processes; rather, it is a systematic way of representing predicate-argument relationships that is parallel to but distinct from the system used in languages like English. Baker argues that polysynthetic languages - in which verbs are built up of many parts and where one verb can act as a whole sentence - are more than an accidental collection of morphological processes; rather they adopt a systematic way of representing predicate-argument relationships, parallel to.
3 Baker, Mark C. Of Parameters and Polysynthesis. The Polysynthesis Parameter. Oxford University Press. Reprinted, with permission from.
Baker,The Polysynthesis Parameter (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax). New York: Oxford University Press, Pp. xix+ - Volume 34 Issue 2 - Donald G. Frantz. Mark C. Baker Rutgers University 1. Introduction Research on polysynthesis and nonconfigurationality in the tradition of Jelinek () and Baker () assigns great significance to the presence of agreement on verbs and other theta-role assigners.
My Polysynthesis Parameter, for example, says that every. Mark C. Baker's polysynthesis parameter. In Mark C. Baker proposed a definition of polysynthesis as a syntactic macroparameter within Noam Chomsky's "principles and parameters" program.
He defines polysynthetic languages as languages that conform to the syntactic rule that he calls the "polysynthesis parameter", and that as a result show a.Download